Selected papers, reports, and other publications related to interoperability.

The EU Digital Markets Act: A Report from a Panel of Economic Experts

“The architectural model of interoperable, competing pieces of hardware and software based on common open standards is what allowed the Internet to flourish, and create fast and widespread economic and cultural progress. This model could still be upheld by regulation by extending Article 6(f) to industry-standard features of the core platform services of the gatekeeper.”

Privacy without monopoly

“A new regime of interoperability can revitalize competition in the space, encourage innovation, and give users more agency over their data; it may also create new risks to user privacy and data security. This paper considers those risks and argues that new interoperability, done correctly, can be a net benefit for user privacy rights.”

Online platforms and digital advertising

“Facebook has significant market power in the social media sector. […] One way of achieving greater competition between social media platforms would be through increased interoperability with Facebook’s large network of users. Interoperability requirements enable the positive network effects stemming from large user bases to extend to other platforms.”