Selected papers, reports, and other publications related to interoperability.
“The architectural model of interoperable, competing pieces of hardware and software based on common open standards is what allowed the Internet to flourish, and create fast and widespread economic and cultural progress. This model could still be upheld by regulation by extending Article 6(f) to industry-standard features of the core platform services of the gatekeeper.”
“A new regime of interoperability can revitalize competition in the space, encourage innovation, and give users more agency over their data; it may also create new risks to user privacy and data security. This paper considers those risks and argues that new interoperability, done correctly, can be a net benefit for user privacy rights.”
“Service interoperability lets users communicate with users of a different service, for example, between WhatsApp and Signal. It would enable communications across networks of users and is seen as an opportunity to mitigate some of the adverse consequences of the network effect and reduce the negative impact of switching.”
“Interoperability is a technical mechanism for computing systems to work together – even if they are from competing firms. An interoperability requirement for large online platforms has been suggested by the European Commission. The policy goal is to increase choice and quality for users, and the ability of competitors to succeed with better services.”
“Facebook has significant market power in the social media sector. […] One way of achieving greater competition between social media platforms would be through increased interoperability with Facebook’s large network of users. Interoperability requirements enable the positive network effects stemming from large user bases to extend to other platforms.”
“Policymakers today are facing pressure to respond to the growing problems of centralization in the tech sector. Targeted intervention to promote and protect interoperability can deliver significant benefits with high efficacy and efficiency. […] The future of tech competition must be built on interoperability.”
“This […] social lock-in as well as the network effects present in social networks which may give rise to interoperability issues, can only be adequately addressed by way of the imposition of interconnection obligations. […] Interconnection between online social networks would serve to advance effective competition in the market.”